Television

Conditional Access: A basic guide

MUMBAI: What is conditional access? How does it work? Is it prevalent globally? What should India do? Is the CAS Amendment a good enough framework?

These are among many more questions that are plaguing industry, planners and the viewer. To make CAS simpler and understandable for both the technophile and the technophobe, Indiantelevision.com scoured the net and came up with a list of resources on the WWW. We hope these will help clear out some of the cobwebs and haze around CAS. Happy Reading!!



 

Conditional access (CA) is a technology used to control access to digital television (DTV) services to authorized users by encrypting the transmitted programming. CA has been used for years for pay-TV services. There are numerous ATSC and DVB-compliant CA systems available for a broadcaster to choose from. The CA system provider provides the equipment and software to the broadcaster who then integrates the CA system into his equipment.

 

 

The following describes the conditional access process:

*The receiver receives the digital data stream.

*The data flows into the conditional access module, which contains the content provider's unscrambling algorithms.

*The conditional access module verifies the existence of a smart card that contains the subscriber's authorization code.

*If the authorization code is accepted, the conditional access module unscrambles the data and returns the data to the receiver. If the code is not accepted, the data remains scrambled restricting access.

*The receiver then decodes the data and outputs it for viewing.



A CA system consists of several basic components: Subscriber Management System (SMS): The SMS is a subsystem of the CA system that manages the subscriber's information and requests entitlement management messages (EMM) from the Subscriber Authorization System (SAS). An EMM provides general information about the subscriber and the status of the subscription. The EMM is sent with the ECM. The ECM is a data unit that contains the key for decrypting the transmitted programs.

Subscriber Authorization System (SAS): The SAS is a subsystem of the CA system that translates the information about the subscriber into an EMM at the request of the SMS. The SAS also ensures that the subscriber's security module receives the authorization needed to view the programs, and the SAS acts as a backup system in case of failure.

Security module: The security module, usually in the form of a smart card, extracts the EMM and ECM necessary for decrypting the transmitted programs. The security module is either embedded within the set-top box or in a PC Card that plugs into the set-top box.

Set-top box: The set-top box houses the security module that gives authorization for decrypting the transmitted programs. The set-top box also converts the digital signal to an analogue signal so an older television can display the programs. .

Smart Cards: For years, smart cards have been used for pay TV programming. Smart cards are inexpensive, allowing the content provider to issue updated smart cards periodically to prevent piracy. Detachable PC cards allow subscribers to use DVB services anywhere DVB technology is supported.

There are two DVB protocols used by CA systems: SimulCrypt and MultiCrypt. SimulCrypt uses multiple set-top boxes, each using a different CA system, to authorize the programs for display. The different ECMs and EMMs required by each CA system are transmitted simultaneously. Each set-top box recognizes and uses the appropriate ECM and EMM needed for authorization. The ATSC standard uses SimulCrypt. MultiCrypt allows multiple CA systems to be used with one set-top box by using a PC card with an embedded smart card for each CA system used. Each card is then plugged into a slot in the set-top box. Each card recognizes the ECM and EMM needed for authorization.

A typical CA process involves three basic elements: the broadcast equipment, the set-top box, and the security module. The broadcast equipment generates the encrypted programs that are transmitted to the subscriber. When these are transmitted, the set-top box filters out the signals and passes them to the security module. The security module then authorizes these programs for decryption. The programs are then descrypted in real time and sent back to the set-top box for display

Latest Reads

http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/05/26/tvviewers2.jpg?itok=vNgg4zDn
English TV news channels to return to BARC fold from midnight 26 May

MUMBAI: There’s another twist in the tale of the story of the runaway ratings of news television channel debutante Republic TV. The five English TV news channel members of the News Broadcasters Association (NBA), who had stripped their signals of Broadcast Audience Research Council’s (BARC’s)...

Television TV Channels News Broadcasting
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/05/26/aaj-tak.jpg?itok=Wg0-hYsO
TV Today numbers up

TV Today Network Limited (TVTN) reported greatly improved consolidated results for the year ended 31 March 2017 (FY-17, current year). The Arun Purie controlled company’s consolidated profit after tax (PAT) increased 60.7 percent to Rs 991.13 million (15.7 percent margin of Total Income) as...

Television TV Channels News Broadcasting
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/05/26/tubelight.jpg?itok=UhrAvi02
Star Gold launches Tubelight's trailer outside Salman Khan's home

Star Gold has always pushed the envelope not only with content but also engagement with the viewers.

Television TV Channels Movie Channels
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/05/26/Republic-Story%20%281%29.jpg?itok=CmN2GcMP
Delhi HC refuses to entertain injunction sought by Times group against Republic TV

The Delhi High Court today refused to entertain an injunction sought by the Times Group in a case filed by it against Republic TV on issues related to IPR on audio tapes aired by the latter. The court has set dates for further hearing in the case. This is according to information shared with...

Television TV Channels News Broadcasting
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/05/26/TNA.jpg?itok=rhthsXVE
Sony & Impact to produce maiden wrestling show in Mumbai

MUMBAI: Sony Pictures Networks India (SPN) and IMPACT Wrestling will, for the first time in professional wrestling history, produce the North American-based wrestling promotion show in the bustling city of Mumbai. Episodes of the highly engaging sport which are usually shot in the Northern...

Television TV Channels Sports
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/05/26/IIFA.jpg?itok=spnmoMXV
IIFA announces technical winners, ADHM & Pink lead

MUMBAI: The International Indian Film Academy announced the list of winners in the Technical categories of India’s most prominent awards celebration that honors the very best of Indian Cinema with the highest level of achievement seen through the glamorous IIFA statuette. Set to be held at the...

Television TV Channels GECs
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/05/26/Shubhas-02-Story.jpg?itok=qjtiOE8S
Print business demerger: Zee Media awaits National Company Law Tribunal approval

MUMBAI: Essel group company Zee Media Corp had got shareholder approval earlier this year to demerge its print media business which includes its newspaper DNA into Diligent Media Corp Ltd (DMCL) and merge two other firms - Mediavest India Pvt Ltd and Pri-Media Services Pvt into - DMCL. The...

Television TV Channels News Broadcasting
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/05/26/Arnab-Goswami.jpg?itok=9issj7zi
India Today gives its POV on Republic TV writ petition

MUMBAI: TV Today which runs a clutch of channels, including the English language news channel India Today, announced that it has withdrawn its petition in the Delhi high court against the Arnab Goswami-led Republic TV.

Television TV Channels News Broadcasting
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/05/26/Namit%20Malhotra.jpg?itok=kCFdO9_c
Prime Focus turns around

BENGALURU: Prime Focus Limited (PFL) has reported robust financial performance, including consolidated profit after tax (PAT) for the period ended 31 March 2017 (quarter – Q4-17 and current quarter, current fiscal; year FY-17 and current year) as compared to the corresponding year ago periods – Q4-...

Television TV Shows Animation

Latest News

Load More

Sign up for our Newsletter

subscribe for latest stories