Television

Conditional Access: A basic guide

MUMBAI: What is conditional access? How does it work? Is it prevalent globally? What should India do? Is the CAS Amendment a good enough framework?

These are among many more questions that are plaguing industry, planners and the viewer. To make CAS simpler and understandable for both the technophile and the technophobe, Indiantelevision.com scoured the net and came up with a list of resources on the WWW. We hope these will help clear out some of the cobwebs and haze around CAS. Happy Reading!!



 

Conditional access (CA) is a technology used to control access to digital television (DTV) services to authorized users by encrypting the transmitted programming. CA has been used for years for pay-TV services. There are numerous ATSC and DVB-compliant CA systems available for a broadcaster to choose from. The CA system provider provides the equipment and software to the broadcaster who then integrates the CA system into his equipment.

 

 

The following describes the conditional access process:

*The receiver receives the digital data stream.

*The data flows into the conditional access module, which contains the content provider's unscrambling algorithms.

*The conditional access module verifies the existence of a smart card that contains the subscriber's authorization code.

*If the authorization code is accepted, the conditional access module unscrambles the data and returns the data to the receiver. If the code is not accepted, the data remains scrambled restricting access.

*The receiver then decodes the data and outputs it for viewing.



A CA system consists of several basic components: Subscriber Management System (SMS): The SMS is a subsystem of the CA system that manages the subscriber's information and requests entitlement management messages (EMM) from the Subscriber Authorization System (SAS). An EMM provides general information about the subscriber and the status of the subscription. The EMM is sent with the ECM. The ECM is a data unit that contains the key for decrypting the transmitted programs.

Subscriber Authorization System (SAS): The SAS is a subsystem of the CA system that translates the information about the subscriber into an EMM at the request of the SMS. The SAS also ensures that the subscriber's security module receives the authorization needed to view the programs, and the SAS acts as a backup system in case of failure.

Security module: The security module, usually in the form of a smart card, extracts the EMM and ECM necessary for decrypting the transmitted programs. The security module is either embedded within the set-top box or in a PC Card that plugs into the set-top box.

Set-top box: The set-top box houses the security module that gives authorization for decrypting the transmitted programs. The set-top box also converts the digital signal to an analogue signal so an older television can display the programs. .

Smart Cards: For years, smart cards have been used for pay TV programming. Smart cards are inexpensive, allowing the content provider to issue updated smart cards periodically to prevent piracy. Detachable PC cards allow subscribers to use DVB services anywhere DVB technology is supported.

There are two DVB protocols used by CA systems: SimulCrypt and MultiCrypt. SimulCrypt uses multiple set-top boxes, each using a different CA system, to authorize the programs for display. The different ECMs and EMMs required by each CA system are transmitted simultaneously. Each set-top box recognizes and uses the appropriate ECM and EMM needed for authorization. The ATSC standard uses SimulCrypt. MultiCrypt allows multiple CA systems to be used with one set-top box by using a PC card with an embedded smart card for each CA system used. Each card is then plugged into a slot in the set-top box. Each card recognizes the ECM and EMM needed for authorization.

A typical CA process involves three basic elements: the broadcast equipment, the set-top box, and the security module. The broadcast equipment generates the encrypted programs that are transmitted to the subscriber. When these are transmitted, the set-top box filters out the signals and passes them to the security module. The security module then authorizes these programs for decryption. The programs are then descrypted in real time and sent back to the set-top box for display

Latest Reads

http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/07/25/shruti.jpg?itok=QRu_q5yE
Shruti Anindita Varma appointed BAG Films' business & creative head

Veteran creative expert Shruti Anindita Varma has joined BAG Films & Media Ltd as the new business and creative head and will be responsible to drive its creative excellence, in-sync with the ongoing transformation of Media and Entertainment industry in Indian market.

Television TV Channels People
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/07/25/Punit-goneka-800x800%20%282%29.jpg?itok=KJDyzBsr
ZEEL reports steady Q1 FY2018 results

MUMBAI: It’s been a hectic first quarter of FY 2018 for homegrown media power house -- the Essel Group promoted Zee Entertainment Enterprises Ltd (Zeel). The company has gone ahead for some corporate restructuring and has also declared its Q1FY2018  financials which, if not impressive, at least...

Television TV Channels GECs
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/07/25/DD-800x800_1.jpg?itok=dnHWjk4Z
DD announces short film contest on Independence theme

NEW DELHI: Doordarshan has announced a Swatantra Bharat Short Films Contest to mark the 75th anniversary of Quit India Movement and 70th anniversary of India's Independence next month. The aim is to create awareness, education, encouragement and enlightenment about inspiring, real-life stories of...

Television TV Channels Terrestrial
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/07/25/NDTV-newsroom.jpg?itok=rwNsboTL
NDTV restructures biz & newsroom amidst reports of layoffs

NEW DELHI: Buffeted by allegations of tax evasion and money laundering, which are being contested in appeal tribunals, one of India’s first private sector TV news organization NDTV has said it is reorganizing newsroom set-up and resources available to adapt to changing technologies like MoJo or...

Television TV Channels News Broadcasting
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/07/24/war.jpg?itok=DB4RB8xx
Star World launches Game of Thrones season 7 with personalized posters

The great war is finally upon Westeros as the much anticipated first episode of Game of Thrones premiered on Star World last Tuesday at 11 PM. In order to promote the launch, Star World undertook a mammoth digital campaign to engage with fans. By tapping into current trends on social media and...

Television TV Channels English Entertainment
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/07/25/Bharat_Kedia.jpg?itok=bE8XN-aK
Bharat Kedia to be ZEEL CFO as Modi gets new role

MUMBAI: Zee Entertainment Enterprises LTD (ZEEL) has appointed Bharat Kedia as the chief financial officer. With effect from 1 August, Kedia will replace Mihir Modi, who will be moving to a new role in the company.

Television TV Channels GECs
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/07/24/Hemang%20Amin.jpg?itok=KaQHwSfq
BCCI elevates Hemang Amin as COO

MUMBAI: The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has appointed Hemang Amin as the chief operating officer (COO) of the Vivo Indian Premier League. Amin was most recently assistant general manager – finance, commercial and events at BCCI and was recognized for successfully handling the...

Television TV Channels People
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/07/24/Untitled-1.jpg?itok=8mf6CXTQ
GRB Entertainment announced sales of it's top 4 documentaries

MUMBAI: GRB Entertainment announced sales of four of its top documentaries to broadcasters in Brazil, Japan and the U.K. Globosat Brazil renewed Remembering Whitney, a documentary featuring legendary singer Whitney Houston, just in time to celebrate the icon’s August 9thbirthday. This breathtaking...

Television TV Channels English Entertainment
http://www.indiantelevision.com/sites/drupal7.indiantelevision.co.in/files/styles/340x340/public/images/tv-images/2017/07/24/DD-800x800.jpg?itok=8r8Xm_oH
Prasar Bharati Board favours separate DD News Hindi & English channels

NEW DELHI: The Prasar Bhrati Board is inclined towards bifurcation of the Doordarshan News channel into two – one for Hindi and another for English. However, the Board has sought the views of Doordarshan before taking a final decision. In a recent meeting, Prasar Bharati sources told...

Television TV Channels Terrestrial

Latest News

Load More

Sign up for our Newsletter

subscribe for latest stories